a 29 December:
2004 The euro is traded up to a record US$1.3645.
1999 The Nasdaq composite index closed above 4000 for the first time, ending the day at 4041.46.
1998 Khmer Rouge leaders apologize for the 1970s genocide in Cambodia that claimed one million lives.
1997 Hong Kong begins slaughtering all its chickens to prevent bird flu.
1996 War-weary guerrilla and government leaders in Guatemala sign an accord ending 36 years of civil conflict.
1994 Bangladesh government of Zia resigns
1992 A suburban Chicago couple returns from a nine-day Mexican vacation and is arrested for leaving its young daughters home alone. The couple later would give their children up for adoption.
1989 Vaclav Havel [05 Oct 1936~] becomes president of Czechoslovakia
1984 Indian PM Rajiv Gandhi [20 Aug 1944 – 21 May 1991] claims victory in parliamentary elections
1983 US announces withdrawal from UNESCO
1981 US President Ronald Reagan [06 Feb 1911 – 05 Jun 2004] curtails Soviet trade in reprisal for its hash policies on Poland.
1978 The shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi [26 Oct 1919 – 27 Jul 1980], asks Shahpur Bakhtiar [1914 – 06 Aug 1991] to form a civilian government. Bakhtiar accepts provided the shah goes into exile. The Bakhtiar government takes office on 04 January 1979. But the ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini [17 May 1900 – 03 Jun 1989], returns from exile on 01 February 1979 to take power, and the Bakhtiar government collapses on 11 February 1979. Bakhtiar goes into hiding, then exile, and ends up assassinated.
1967 Turkish-Cypriot government forms in Cyprus
1966 Student-body presidents from 100 US colleges and universities sign an open letter to President Lyndon B. Johnson expressing anxiety and doubt over US involvement in Vietnam. They warn that many youths might prefer prison to participation in the war. Johnson did not respond.
1948 Tito declares that Yugoslavia will follow its own path to Communism. .
1947 Ship carrying Jewish immigrants chased away from Palestine
1944 Belgian nazi Léon Degrelle at default sentenced to death.
1940 Germany begins dropping incendiary bombs on London (WW II)
1940 In a radio interview, President Roosevelt proclaims the United States to be the "arsenal of democracy.
1937 Pan Am starts San Francisco-to-Auckland, New Zealand service
| 1937 2nd Irish constitution goes into effect; Irish
Free State renamed Eire
1934 Japan formally denounces Washington Naval Treaty of 1922 and London Naval Treaty of 1930.
1952 Sonotone Corporation offered the first transistorized hearing aid for sale.
1931 Identification of heavy water is publicly announced by Harold Clayton Urey (18931981)
1930 Fred P Newton completes longest swim ever (2939 km), in the Mississippi River from Ford Dam, Minn, to New Orleans
1929 Police arrest Sukarno & 100s PNI-leaders
1926 The Vatican puts the works of French protofascist Charles Maurras [20 Apr 1868 – 16 Nov 1952] on the Index of Forbidden Books.
1921 William Lyon Mackenzie King [17 Dec 1874 – 22 Jul 1950] succeeds Arthur Meighen [16 Jun 1874 – 05 Aug 1960] as Canadian prime minister.
1921 Sears Roebuck president Julius Rosenwald pledges $20 million of his personal fortune to help Sears through hard times.
1920 Yugoslav govt bans communist party
1914 The publication of Belgian newspapers is halted to protest German censorship.
1903 Moyen Congo, which since 05 July 1902 was a district part of the Bas Congo-Gabon colony, becomes a separate colony. On 15 Jan 1910 Moyen Congo (now Congo-Brazzaville), Gabon, Oubangui-Chari (now Central African Republic), and Chad would form Afrique Equatoriale Française (AEF).
1891 Edison patents "transmission of signals electrically" (radio)
1867 1st telegraph ticker used by a brokerage house, Groesbeck & Co, New York
1862 The troops of Union General William T. Sherman try to gain the north side of Vicksburg in the Battle of Chicksaw Bayou, Mississippi .
1852 Emma Snodgrass is arrested in Boston for wearing pants
1851 1st Young Men's Christian Association chapter opened (Boston)
1848 US President James Polk turned on the first gas light at the White House.
1813 British burn Buffalo, New York during the War of 1812
1778 British troops, attempting a new strategy to defeat the colonials in America, capture Savannah.
1607 Indian chief Powhatan spares John Smith's life after the pleas of his daughter Pocahontas.
1558 Charles V, German emperor, buried
1223 Pope Honorius III approves the Franciscan religious order. Properly called the Order of the Friars Minor, this Catholic order was founded in 1209 by St. Francis of Assisi.
2003 Amit Kumar, 33, dies while being taken to the Magadh Medical College Hospital in Gaya, Bihar, India, after falling ill after taking a meal in a restaurant at Sherghati, a sub-divisional town of the district along the Grand Trunk Road. He was an engineer employed by Gammon India , a private construction company associated with the ‘golden quadrilateral’ road project, of which a project director, Satyendra Dubey, who had reported corrupton, was murdered on 27 November 2003.
2003 Archbishop Michael Courtney, 58, papal nuncio in Burundi, after being shot in the head, shoulder, and a limb by assailants who had first shot out the tires of his car, about 50 km south of Bujumbura, Burundi. The car's driver and a hitchhiker are unhurt, the other person in the car, a priest, is slightly injured. The assailants had just shot a Burundian soldier when the nuncio's car arrived.
2002 Abdel Karim Salameh, 8, Palestinian, hit in the head by Israeli gunfire as he walked home from school, 500 meters from a group of school kids throwing stones at Israeli soldiers, in Tulkarm, West Bank. An 11-year-old Palestinian boy is wounded.
2002 Desmond Hoyte, 73, of heart failure, prime minister of the Cooperative Republic of Guyana, from 1985 when he succeeded socialist Forbes Burnham, until being defeated in the 1992 election, after which he became opposition leader.
2001 Some 600 persons in fire in downtown Lima, Peru, started by fireworks explosion in dozens of street stands, started by a fireworks seller lighting a large firecracker to show a customer, near the crowded shopping area.
2000 Laura Dzhabrailova, 24, Tamila Dzhabrailova, 27, sisters, executed in the Urus-Martan district by the Chechen Resistance, for treason (working for the local puppet admistration set up by the Russian aggressors).
2000 Wahidin bin Engkos, of injuries he suffered in a blast at a makeshift bomb factory in Bandung, Indonesia, which instantly killed another 3 persons. It is suspected that its bombs were used in the series of bombings targeting Christian churches in nine cities across Indonesia, killing 15 persons on Christmas eve, plus one teen-age boy who died in East Java province from injuries on 001228.
1992 Two Austrian tourists; by a bomb in a hotel in Aden, Yemen, where US troops had been staying while en route to a humanitarian mission in Somalia. The US soldiers had already left. Two Yemeni Muslim militants, trained in Afghanistan and injured in the blast, are later arrested. US intelligence agencies allege that this was the first terrorist attack involving Osama bin Laden and his associates
1986 Harold Macmillan, 92, former British Prime Minister, in Sussex, England
1975 Eleven persons, by bomb exploding in the main terminal of New York's LaGuardia Airport.
1972 Joseph Cornell, US artist born on 24 December 1903. MORE ON CORNELL AT ART 4 DECEMBER 24 with links to images.
1972 Life magazine ceases publication
1941 Tullio Levi-Civita, of a stroke, Italian mathematician born in Padua on 29 March 1873.. He taught at the universities of Padua (1898–1919) and Rome (1919–1938, dismissed for being a Jew) and was noted for his researches in pure geometry, hydrodynamics, celestial mechanics, and tensor analysis, on which Einstein’s work depended in part. Author of Simplified Presentation of Einstein’s Unified Field Equations. Principal author of The Absolute Differential Calculus (Calculus of Tensors)
| 1908 Herman Gustaf Sillen, Swedish artist born on 20
1891 Leopold Kronecker, Prussian mathematician born on 07 Dec 1823. He limited his achievements and made himself obnoxious by insisting that nothing exists in mathematics except what can be constructed with a finite number of operation from the integers, an opinion which he expounded in Über den Zahlbergriff (1887).
| 1881 Ludwig Hermann van Hoom, German artist born in
April 1812. [Hoom, sweet Hoom?]
1870 Castor, killed for his meat, elephant of the zoo in famished Paris besieged by the Prussians since 19 September 1870. The other elephant, Pollux, would be killed the next day. The elephant of the Jardin des Plantes would be killed on 02 January 1871.
1737 Joseph Saurin, French mathematician born on 01 September 1659. He made contributions to the calculus, wrote on Jacob Bernoulli's problem of quickest descent and Huygens' theory of the pendulum. He had been a Calvinist minister, but, disagreeing with the thought control Calvinist authorities attempted to exert over him, he became a Catholic in 1890.
1731 Brook Taylor, English mathematician born on 18 August 1685. He added to mathematics a new branch now called the calculus of finite differences, invented integration by parts, and discovered the formula known as Taylor's expansion [f(a+h) = f(a) + hf'(a)/1! + h2f"(a)/2! + ...], all of which he published in his book Methodus incrementorum directa et inversa (1715).
1661 Frans de Hulst, Flemish artist born in 1610.
1633 Cornelis Claeszoon van Wieringen, Dutch painter specialized in seascapes, born in 1580 he first was a sailor. MORE ON VAN WIERINGEN AT ART 4 DECEMBER with links to images.
1616 Hendrik Goltzius, Dutch artist born in February 1558. MORE ON GOLTZIUS AT ART 4 DECEMBER with links to images.
1953 Stanley Tookie Williams III. In 1971, with his high school friend, Raymond Lee Washington [1954 – Aug 1979], he co-founded the Crips gang in Los Angeles. On 28 February 1979 Albert Owens, 26, a 7-11 clerk in Whittier, California, was murdered, shot twice in the back.. On 11 March 1979, Yen-I Yang, 76, his wife, Tsai-Shai Yang, 63, and their visiting daughter, Yee-Chen Lin, 43, were fatally shot during a robbery by Williams at their Brookhaven Motel in Los Angeles. On 15 March 1979 Williams was arrested, and on 05 April 1981 he was sentenced to death for those four counts of first-degree murder, which he always denied having commited. Williams became famous and admired as an anti-gang crusader while on Death Row. On 13 April 1997 he wrote an apology for co-founding the Crips. He co-authored a series of 24-page books against gangs, for children; he co-authored Life in Prison. He also wrote an autobiography: Redemption : From Original Gangster to Nobel Prize Nominee - The Extraordinary Life Story of Stanley Tookie Williams. A movie was made about him: Redemption: The Stan Tookie Williams Story (2004). On 02 February 2005 the 9th Circuit US Court of Appeals issued its final denial for rehearing the case. On 11 October 2005 the US Supreme Court denied a final petition. On 30 November 2005 the California Supreme Court refused to reopen the case. California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger [30 Jul 1947~] having denied a commutation of sentence (12 hours before the execution), Williams was executed by lethal injection at 00:01 (08:01 UT) on 13 December 2005. — (051212)
1952 First transistorized hearing aid goes on sale, by the Sonotone Corporation, in Elmsford NY. The 8-cm-long device weighs about 100 grams. The first hearing aid (other than an ear trumpet) was the Audiophone, a device held against the teeth, which was patented in 1879. An electric hearing aid was produced in 1901.
1922 William Gaddis, US novelist who died on 16 December 1998.
1917 Tom Bradley (Mayor-D-LA) (1973- )
1911 Klaus Fuchs, German-born US physicist and spy, who died on 28 January 1988.
1908 Four-wheel braking system is patented by Otto Zachow and William Besserdich of Clintonville, Wisconsin. It is the prototype of all modern braking systems.
1896 David Alfaro Siqueiros Mexico, painter/muralist (Lib of Chile)
1876 Pablo Casals, Vendrell, Catalonia, Spain, cellist/conductor/composer.
1868 Ludwig Ferdinand Graf, German artist who died in 1932.
1861 Kurt Hensel, German mathematician who died on 01 June 1941. Hensel invented the p-adic numbers in 1897.
1859 Venustiano Carranza President of Mexico (1915-20).
1859 Elizabeth Adela Amstrong Forbes, British artist who died on 22 March 1912. MORE ON FORBES AT ART 4 DECEMBER with links to images.
1856 Thomas Jan Stieltjes, Dutch mathematician who died on 31 December 1894. (Stieltjes integral)
1851 The first US Young Men's Christian Association is organized, in Boston.
1841 Alexander Carlovich Beggrow, Russian artist who died in 1914.
1838 Raffaello Sernesi, Italian artist who died on 11 August 1866. MORE ON SERNESI AT ART 4 AUGUST with links to images.
1834 Auguste Louis Veillon, Swiss artist who died on 05 January 1890.
1809 William Ewart Gladstone (Lib) British prime minister four times (1868-1874, 1880-1885, 1886, 1892-1894). He died on 19 May 1898.
1775 Guatemala de la Asunción is founded as Guatemala's new capital (since generally known as Guatemala, or Guatemala City), as the former capital, Santiago de los Caballeros de Guatemala (since known as Antigua) was devastated by an earthquake on 29 July 1773. — (051228)
1759 Julius-César Ibbetson, British painter who died on 13 October 1817. MORE ON IBBETSON AT ART 4 DECEMBER with links to images.
1721 Jeanne Poisson Marquise de Pompadour, influential mistress of Louis XV, who was later blamed for France's defeat in the Seven Years' War. She died on 15 April 1764.
1695 Jean-Baptiste Joseph Pater, French painter who died on 25 July 1736. MORE ON PATER AT ART 4 DECEMBER with links to images.