I have been informed that Phoenix* 47 (1/2 2001 p. 68-89)
has recently published an article by Rene' van Walsem "Sporen
van een revolutie in Saqqara. Het nieuw ontdekte graf van Meryneith
alias Meryre en zijn plaats in de Amarnaperiode." ("Traces of a revolution
in Saqqara. The newly discovered tomb of Meryneith alias Meryre and
its / his place in the Amarna period").
*[Phoenix is the Bulletin of the Society Ex Oriente Lux, Leiden (Netherlands)].
This article introduces the dutch excavations of the 18th dynasty tomb
of the High priest of Aton in Memphis and Akhetaton Meryneith - Meryra;
the tomb site is Saqqara, in the field
south of Djoser's Step Pyramid complex, the area of the Apa Jeremias
monastery (east of the tomb of Horemheb).
The excavations, which will continue in 2002 seasons, are a joint expedition
of the University of Leiden (UL) and the National Museum of Antiquities
(RMO) at Leiden, with Maarten Raven as René van Walsem's
The article at p. 87 runs :"But there have been found
pieces of ceramic and stone dummy vases, outside the tomb, in the courtyard,
in the shaft and in a system of corridors, which on that base must be
dated to the 2d dynasty."
Note 29 : "In other words, Meryre has rased an early dynastic tomb and
reused the shaft. The extensive system of corridors from the 2nd dynasty
as well as the Late Period will only be examined systematically during
the 2002 season."
Contrarily to the immediate neighbourhood of the Step
Pyramid complex and its enclosing 'dry moat'-trench (i.e. the mastabas
near the south temenos), the area far south has been left relatively
The same is true for the area some meters north of the complex (cfr.
M. Baud, 'Aux pieds de Djoser - Les Mastabas entre Fosse et Enceinte
...' in Or. Monsp IX. 1997/ 69-87) where Lepsius and Mariette excavated
few Early Dynastic and many Old Kingdom tombs.
A joint Polish-Egyptian team (Warsaw Univ.-SCA) directed
by Karol Mysliwiec found possible Second Dynasty royal tombs superstructureswest
of the Djoser complex in 1996-1997 (L.L. Giddy, E.A. 10, 1997 p. 28).
Part of its sone-mudbrick wall was razed for the construction of a Third
Dynasty mastaba. In the shafts pottery and blu faience tiles were found.
Similarly to the recent discoveries by Munro (D.E. 26) in the area of
Ninetjer 's tomb superstructure, also this western tomb must have had
"a rock cut court paved with mud and bearing many traces of ritual
fires" (Giddy, loc. cit.). [Cfr. Al Ahram Weekly
article cached from http://www.cbjd.net/orbit/graphics/text38.htm]
The bibliography on the architecture
of the Second Dynasty Royal tomb at Saqqara is somewhat scanty; the
only ascertained burials have been discovered at the beginning and middle
'900 beneath the Unas Pyramid and Temple (Hotepsekhemwy)
and some 100 m east (Ninetjer). Only the
rock cut galleries remained, few meters from the surface, rased by the
late Vth dynasty royal complex and, in the case of Ninetjer's one, by
some OK mastabas (cfr. A. Dodson, 'The Mysterious Second Dynasty' in
KMT 7:2 .1996/ 19-31).
N. Swelim has shown that the area immediately south of
the Step Pyramid complex might have preserved some traces of Third Dynasty
kings' cults, as evidenced by the finding of tombs of Vth and VI th
dynasty priests whose names were perhaps based on those of Horus
Ba (NiankhBa) and Nebka (Niankhnebka)
(cfr. Swelim, 'The Dry Moat of the Netjerykhet Complex' in J. Baines
ed. 'Pyramid Studies and other Essays ... to I.E.S. Edwards' 1988 p.
There is also the well known funerary priest Shery, whose tomb (Mariette
Mastaba B3) in the north field (Kaiser, G.M. 122, 1991) yielded inscriptions
attesting the funerary cult of Sened and Peribsen;
this would suggest the presence of athe royal tomb(s) in the same area;
on the other side, a mudbrick inscription (later?) with the cartouche
name Nefer-SENED-Ra has been recently found (cfr. Orientalia 57, 1988
p. 330 and Vercoutter 'L' Egypte et la ...' 1997) near the tomb of Ninetjer.
H.G. Fischer published ('An Egyptian Royal Stela of the Second Dynasty'
in Artibus Asiae 24, 1961 p. 45-56) the funerary pink granite stela
of Horus Nebra found reused in a house at Mit
Rahina. His tomb has not been found although some seal impressions with
his name in Hotepsekhemwy's galleries lead Lauer to think about a possible
reuse of the latter's burial by Nebra.
R. Stadelmann published an important article in 1985 ('Die
Oberbauten der Konigsgraber der 2. Dynastie in Sakkara', in B.d.E. 97,2
Mel. Mokhtar II p. 295-307) discussing the possibility that more royal
tombs of the Second Dynasty must have been built in Middle and West
Saqqara, having as a counterpart, alike those at Abydos, the wide funerary
enclosures known as Gisr el Mudir and Ptahhotep enclosure -and a possible
third one-). The german archaeologist advanced that the galleries beneath
Djoser complex West Massifs, more than 400 m from N to S, could have
been a Second dynasty tomb substructure reused by Netjerykhet (see also
W. Kaiser's 1991 article, 'Zu den Konigsgrabern der 2. Dynastie in Sakkara
und Abydos' in Bryan-Lorton eds. 'Essays in Egyptology in honor of H.
Goedicke' 1994 p. 113-123).
Kaiser hypothesized that more IInd Dynasty royal tombs
(Nebra, Sened, Wneg,
Neferkaseker, Nwbnefer) must have been built around
the area of the Step Pyramid complex, in Middle Saqqara, West Saqqara
-and maybe we may add Abusir-; the excavations of the next year (2002)
will shed new light on the Second Dynasty Royal (?) tomb found beneath
the sepulchre of the High Priest of Aton Meryneith Meryra, and on the
early Dynastic (and late period) galleries below it.
My degree thesis 'The Second Dynasty: Historical and Archaeological
problems' will resume all the known data on this obscure dynasty; but,
as always, only the fieldwork can increase our knowledge on the kings
and culture of this period.
On the inscriptional side we will surely benefit of two tools of highly
valuable importance which are going to be published: Jochem Kahl
's Frühägyptisches Wörterbuch and Ilona Regulski 's Paläographie
I have been informed, by Dr. Joris van Wetering, that
the tomb in object is in a wadi west of Apa Jeremias, between Sekhemkhet
complex and Apa Geremias monastery (one of the places where it was hypothesized
more IInd Dyn. royal tombs should have been). It is located just on
the prolongment of Djoser complex eastern wall, thus not many meters
east of the latitude where Ninetjer's own tomb is.
As van Wetering notes citing the immediate parallel of
the North Saqqara elite necropolis, it is not known the southernmost
occurrance of Early Dynastic tombs near the escarpment. There could
be a continuation of the northern archaic tombs line built on the edge
of the escarpment for the high officials (the southernmost ED tombs
yet known are those in the area between the EEF house and the Inspectorate
Office). But no similar tomb has been found to present. And the missing
proof would account for the presence of Royal tombs to the south, which,
as known, were still kept very distant from private ones.
Nothing more can be said before the reprise of excavations in January-February
These should focus just on the Second Dynasty tomb structures.
At first one could think that the edge of the escarpment
would have been the most preferred site were a king might have built
his tomb, in a very exposed and visible position.
But in this period the site of Memphis must have been still north of
the later one (in front and at the feet of the northernmost part of
the North Saqqara necropolis) so a greater part and importance must
have been attributed to the access into the necropolis from the Wadi
Abusir as well as to other topographical factors and to other reasons.
If the edge of the escarpment had been considered suitable for a Royal
tomb, Hotepsekhemwy, the first king buried at Saqqara (if we exclude
the ephemeral and still uncertainly placeable Sneferka),
would not have been buried in such a western position, c. half a Km
from the edge of the pleteau.
It would be certainly more interesting for various reason
if the tomb was of a Second Dynasty King; there are many gaps in the
informations about some sovereigns and in their sequence; on the other
hand, if the tomb proved to be an elite one, this fact wouldn't lack
important consequences for the interrelations between royal and private
tombs in the necropolis; this would mean that, in this period, the distance
of the sepoltures of the kings from those of their officials was significantly
smaller than it was presumed.
Until now, apart from the small pits of the retainers around the Abydos
royal tombs and enclosures, the earliest signs of a direct relationship
between royal and private funerary structures are those in the IVth-VIth
Dynasties pyramids; at Saqqara this seemed to first occur in the Vth
Dynasty, with the mastabas nearby the Unas complex.
However this statement could also be erroneous in view of the possible
proximity of early IIIrd Dynasty private tombs west of the Step Pyramid
Complex of Netjerykhet; these have been excavated by K. Mysliwiec (cf.
id. in: P.A.M. 8-12, 1997-2001; later IIIrd Dyn tombs or cult chapels
south of StPyrCom have been suggested to exist by N. Swelim 'The Dry
Moat...', 1998, p. 15, 22, with regard to the names of the officials
NjankhBa and NjankhNebka) and appear to have been contemporary
with the reign of Djoser and the earliest constructional phases of his
funerary complex (cf. J. van Wetering "The Royal Cemetery of the
Early Dynastic Period at Saqqara and the Second Dynasty Royal Tombs"
in: 'Proceedings of the Krakow Conference 2002'; id. "The
Early Dynastic Royal Cemetery at Saqqara. Area West of the Step Pyramid
LAST UPDATE (April- 15/18 -2002)
SECOND DYNASTY ROYAL-TOMB DEVELOPMENT
The important discovery of this tomb adds a fundamental
piece of evidence into the still scarcely documented development of
royal funerary architecture during the Second Dynasty.
We have already precised that, given the lack of evidence concerning
the Saqqara Early Dynastic private tombs south of Teti pyramid, it must
be assumed that the ED elite cemetery was confined to the 'North Saqqara'
plateau: to my knowledge the three southernmost tombs are Tomb X (partly
under the EES house), Herneith's S3507 and, some meters SW, SCA 1995
(GM 152, 1996, 105ff); I don't know of any evidence from further south
(in which case the tombs would have been destroyed under the Teti cemetery
and the modern Inspectorate Office).
There is a strong likelihood that the tombs situated in the area of
the NK cemetery did belong to the Second Dynasty ephemeral followers
of Ninetjer. The area must have been devoted,
at that time, exclusively to royal tombs.
Circa 70 limestone dummy-vessels were found in the subterranean structures
together with jars and pottery/stone sherds. The vessels belong to El-Khouli
(Egyptian Stone vessels, 1978, vol. II, 770) class I (cylinder vessels),
types: 1-J,346-347 (found in the Abydos tomb V of Khasekhemwy), 2-D,468
(Naga ed-Deir t. 536, 2nd dyn), 2-J,755 (t. 549, 1st dyn.), 3-H, 1136
(Badari t. 3112: an alabaster vessel fragment bearing Hotepsekhemwy's
serekh was found by Brunton in this early 2nd dyn. tomb).
[Also cfr. for stone vessels: Raven et al., JEOL 37, 2002, 98, n. 8,
Therefore most of the substructures of this tomb were certainly of Second
Dynasty origin. The development of the Archaic (royal) tombs substructure
-from late First Dynasty to early Third Dynasty- can be summarized in
the following phases (with parallels from elite the cemeteries):
1) Den-Qa'a: Ongoing development and enlargement
of the subterranean apparatus, mainly consisting of the central burial
chamber (dug from above as a wide open-pit roofed with poles and planks)
surrounded by storerooms; these latter are more distant from the burial
chamber (cf. Semerkhet) than in the earlier tombs; the stairway, which
was introduced by Den, is flanked by the first (paired) storerooms branching
off from it (only two in Saqqara X, dated to late Den); its slope increases
with time, alike the depth of the burial chamber. Also to Den dates
the first evidence of side-chambers with a possible proto-serdab function.
The small tomb of retainers neatly decrease in number or disappear at
all with the end of the First Dynasty.
Similar patterns can be observed in the elite mastabas of the same period
at Saqqara S3500, 3505, 3120, 3121, and Helwan 150H5. The superstructure,
where preserved, indicate a general pattern of simplification of the
niches and the less use of spaces within them than in the previous tombs
(in the earliest niched mastaba, the Naqada tomb, the chambers and minor
rooms were all above the ground surface) leading to the II-III dyn.
filled brick mastabas.
2) Hotepsekhemwy-(Nebra) (Tomb A): The superstructure is still
a puzzle, but cf. Ninetjer page for some
clues from Munro's 1990s excavations in the Saqqara tomb (B).
The access stairway gently slopes on the entrance and the corridor becomes
horizontal at the dept of 7 meters, which is approximately the level
of the whole tomb substructure. This is labyrinthic, developed on the
main N-S axis, with several long corridor-like side chambers branching
off of the main central gallery. This latter is blocked at regular intervals
by four heavy portcullis. The burial chamber (completely excavated in
the rock, not a shaft from the surface as before) is at the south end
of the main corridor, and flanked by a model washing niche with water
jar and by a latrine, once again stressing the similarity of the tomb
with the royal palace apartments (see plans and photos in J.E. Quibel,
Archaic Mastabas, 1923, Pl. 30, 31; A.M. Roth, in: JARCE 30, 1993, 33-54,
esp. 40ff.; A.G. Reisner, Tomb Development, 1936, 122-146, appendix
B, C; Vandier, Manuel I.2; Helck, LÄ V, 387ff.).
Ninetjer (Tomb B): Most of the known IInd Dynasty private tombs
of North Saqqara date to Ninetjer's reign.The huge tomb of Nyruab
(or Ruaben, S2302) had a plain double casing
with only two niches in the eastern face (in
both the casing walls), the southern ones were more developed and larger
than the northern ones (cf. the contemporary tomb S2429 Khnwmenii/ Ij-n-Khnemw).
Other contemporary tombs are S2171, S2498,
S3009 (discussed in the page of Ninetjer)
and the Helwan tomb 505H4
(Saad, 1951; cf. Wilkinson, in: MDAIK 52, 1996, 337-354).
The royal tomb at Saqqara (PM, B), less than 150m east of Hotepsekhemwy's
one, has a different arrangement of subterranean parts, which were once
thought to be more widespread than Hotepsekhemwy's tomb. Munro has only
partly revealed the extension of these galleries; there is a shaft south
of the entrance stairway (which starts from within an OK tomb) but I
don't know if it's archaic or late: many skeletons of late period I
have seen in photos (kindly shown to me by Dr. Nabil Swelim whom I thank)
demonstrate the same Saitic-period reuse of the galleries which was
encountered beneath the Unas pyramid temple where Hotepsekhemwy's substructure
At the present state of knowledge it seems that Ninetjer's galleries
have a greater extension in E-W directions than the other tomb, but
less in the N-S axis; the same pattern is followed in the following
phase. The last part of the main corridor slightly bends westwards,
preannouncing the shift of the position of the burial chamber into the
south-west end of the substructure.
4) Wneg-Peribsen: The 'squarish' arrangement of the substructures
of the new found Saqqara tomb is in line with the progression started
by Ninetjer in tomb B. The minor overall extension clearly agrees with
the minor character of these middle Second Dynasty sovereigns.
The use of the shafts (not those for portcullis, but true pits) will
persist for a long time and is encountered also under Khasekhemwy and
We have very few informations for contemporary private tombs (vessels
with Uneg's name were found in
As attested in the IVth dynasty cult directed by the chief of the Wab
priests Shery (Saqqara B3; Kaiser, GM 122, 1991) Peribsen and Sened
had reigns very close in time (or contemporary, one in the UE and the
other in LE); the latter could be, together with Uneg, a serious candidate
for the ownership of the tomb here dealt with (other likely candidates
are the similarly obscure kings Nwbnefer,
Neferkaseker and few more).
There are three clues to be considered: 1) Shery's tomb evidence
of a funerary-cult for king Sened suggests that the latter's tomb was
at Saqqara (cf. Kaiser, in: GM 122, 1991); 2) Wneg
must have been a relevant individual during Ninetjer's reign (if not
his own son), espacially if he really was the Wr-Maaw Wadj-sen
attested in ink inscriptions on stone vessels
from Djoser's pyramid. Therefore it's probable that might have chosen
to build his tomb closer to the one of his prestigious predecessor.
3) A mudbrick stamped inscription with the cartouche name Nefer-Sened-Ra
(which could be archaic as well as Ramesside) is surely a sign of the
closeness of a royal monument of Sened (who undoubtly is the same as
Nefersenedjra) to the point of its finding, namely the area few NW of
the tomb in object (Orientalia 57, 1988, 330; Vercoutter, L' Egypte
et la Vallée du Nil, I, 1990, 227) near that of Njnetjer (B).
Hence these indications point to a probable ownership of the tomb
(C*) to king Sened. However J. van Wetering has kindly informed
me that a sherd inscribed with "Hwt Ka Horus Za" (alike the
39 examples from the Step Pyramid Complex ink inscribed stone vases
with Khnemwenii's name) was found in late 1980's near the tomb of Maya
(in Tutankhamon reign's high elite cemetery); thus much closer to the
tomb in object than Nefersenedjra brick.
J. van Wetering prefers to attribute this royal tomb to Horus Za (cf.
"The Royal Cemetery of the Early Dynastic Period at Saqqara and
the Second Dynasty Royal Tombs" in: 'Proceedings of the Krakow Conference
2002'); the latter king name has been proposed as the Horus name of
Wneg, but it might also have been instead Sened's
or a different king's one.
I follow J. van Wetering (op. cit.) in the denomination
of this new found tomb as Tomb C: independently
the precise attribution to one of the followers of Ninetjer, the original
tomb was almost certainly that
of a 2nd Dynasty king, therefore it can be denominated in line with
the labels "Tomb A and B", which are
(however only seldom) used to indicate the galleries/tombs
of Hotepsekhemwy and Ninetjer respectively.
The Abydos tomb P (Peribsen)
was built NW of the subsidiary pits of Djet's and Djer's tombs; it is
squarish and with magazines all around the central chamber, but in the
same main pit.
The tomb of the follower Sekhemib
has not yet been found (some scholars still think he was the same as
5) Khasekhemwy: The tomb V at Abydos, recently re-excavated by
the DAIK archaeologists directed by G. Dreyer (MDAIK 54, 1998), was
originally similar to that of Peribsen; built to the south of the main
group, it was subsequently enlarged at least twice, finally assuming
the known very elongated shape.
This character is echoed by the long rock-cut galleries found beneath
the two innermost Western Massifs of
the complex of Djoser at Saqqara. These develop for nearly 400m from
North to South, with hundreds of comb-like side magazines, similar to
those of Hotepsekhemwy's tomb. The tender and dangerous nature of the
limestone has prevented further researches in this huge set of galleries
since Firth and Lauer's explorations around 1930.
The same pattern, but at much less scale, is found in the E-W gallery
of the north court of the complex, in which IInd Dynasty stone vessels
and Khasekhemwy's seal impressions were found; this storeroom was obviously
reused by Djoser from a previous tomb; Mariette (A4) found there a beautiful
alabaster table with lion heads (now in Cairo Museum).
Stadelmann hypothesis that these galleries represented previous rulers'
tomb substructures later incorporated in Djoser's complex area, is an
intriguing one, but ought to be verified on the field with further researches
6) Netjerykhet: In Saqqara private tombs superstructure the two
eastern niches are retained, the southern one developing into a more
elaborate serdab (S2407, Hesy; S3073, Khabausokar and Hathorneferhotep,
cf. Cherpion OLP 11, 1980, 59ff.; S2405, Hesyra,
with eleven inner niches and two -or three- parallel eastern galleries);
the shafts to the burial chamber are deep, the descending stairway very
slope (cf. Bet Khallaf K1, Djoser's reign), sometimes double as in S2407
or in Bet Khallaf K2 (Sanakht's reign); the burial
chamber on the south end of the corridor, which is blocked by portcullis
and provided with less departing magazines.
Djoser's pyramid galleries are very intricate, even if not as much as
those in early Second Dynasty royal tombs.
The burial chamber is in the middle, at the bottom of a deep shaft cuirassed
with granite and closed by a plug.
The area around the chamber is surrounded by four sets of galleries
on all its sides, the eastern one provided with three niches in which
the king's famous panels were set (in identical position as those beneath
the South tomb).
Further to the east there were eleven pits (their access on the surface
was hidden by the last phase of enlargement of the original Mastaba
-M3-) at which bottom they curved towards the central burial chamber
(but some meters lower than it) forming long rooms in which two alabaster
sarcophagi (III) and many stone vessels (VI-VII) were found.
The main chamber had been dug at the end of a long N-S trench starting
from north of the Mastaba 1; the entrance was sealed under the pyramid,
so that a further gallery was started NW of the old entrance from the
North Temple of the pyramid, which joined the old descending trench
beneath the surface.
The arrangement of galleries around the burial chamber (which will be
followed also in Sekhemkhet's and Zawiyet el Aryan South Step Pyramids
substructures) is just what seems to emerge from the layout of this
newly found tomb C (cf. Raven et al. in: JEOL 37, 2002, 100).
It can be concluded that among the enormous legacy of monuments which
the site of Saqqara still hides, there must surely be more of Early
Dynastic period. The prolonged use and frequentation of the site (cf.
Saqqara page) plays against the chance to
find unplundered tombs, but this cannot be excluded as a possibility;
few objects could tell us as much as a long papyrus roll. Still more
certain is the fact that the history of the Second Dynasty has in this
site an outstanding potential source of knowledge for us. Many areas
haven't yet received sufficient attention neither by modern nor by old
The relatively easy way of excavating the rock at Saqqara
and the need for more security against plunderers, led the ancient architects
to devise new means to preserve the amounts of gravegoods stored in
elite and royal tombs.
Much less was the relevancy of the superstructure in relation to this
aspect; it became the focus of symbolical value and receptacle of visual
attributes as niched palace-facade-walls with its intimate meaning;
the monumental aspect linked to political and social role display, and
metaphor of power; the importance of the inner path leading the offerers
towards the offering stand (and its developments, i.e. Hesyra) whereby
to supply nutrition for the dead's ka;
the sign of continuous presence in this world through a building destined
to remain on/in it, to occupy a space, as is the case of the houses:
and the lower part of the tomb infact replicated a building for the
living, with its comforts.
Unluckily very few is known about the structures surrounding the royal
tombs; but the comparison with the OK, some structural aspects of contemporary
private mastabas (espec. S3357, S3505) and some suggestions made in
respect of Ninetjer's tomb (Munro et al. in: D.E. 26, 1993, 47ff.),
are alrady of great help to suggest the forms of rituals and cults which
had to be dedicated to the dead and accomplished around and into their
tombs; the scale and relevancy of these practices at the King's tomb-complex
had to be of course of far greater proportions and interest for the
people involved in it (royal cult priesthood/phyles, offering occasions,
public ceremonies, feasts).
We might also ask ourselves about the causes implicit
in the progressive development and transformation of the tombs structures,
be them in the sphere of beliefs' evolution or rather a mere matter
of means, budget and available time. As discussed above the burial chamber
position moved from the centre of the substructure (Ist Dyn) to the
south end of it (Ist half of IInd Dyn). The plan of the substructure
changed during the IInd Dyn from the rectangular extension along the
N-S axis, to a square orientation focusing on both the N-S and the E-W
The long Khasekhemwy V at Abydos had its burial chamber in the middle
of it; this is not the case at Saqqara Western Massif galleries; it
remains purely speculative whether to interpret these latter as a Second
Dynasty monument reused by Djoser, or as an original accomplishment
of Imhotep for his king's mortuary complex.
The question of development of funerary architectures could play an
important part in deciding the prime purpose of this large storeroom-tomb,
also considering its likely relation with the Ptahhotep enclosure or
with the Gisr el Mudir.
Concerning the ownership of tomb C, I have expressed a tentative attribution
to Sened. This rests anyhow on purely speculative and intuitive grounds
(see above) given the paucity of information on the reigns of the Ninetjer
The same presence of late Second Dynasty kings at Saqqara is a puzzle:
no contemporary attestation of Peribsen are found here, contrarily to
those for Sekhemib (Djoser's complex stone vessels inscr.) and for Khasekhemwy
(S3034, S3043, Djoser's complex, Mariette A4, Gisr el Mudir ?). The
political situation and the often cited crisis of this period haven't
found much data on which to base further hypotheses and researches.
These and other points will be the object of my thesis in which I hope
to present an update panorama of the known data and theories, the old
and the new ones, in order to trace a more comprehensible picture of
this fashinating dark age.
- The Preliminary reports in English are in Journal of Ex Oriente
Lux (JEOL) 2001/2002;
- R. van Walsem, Sporen van een revolutie in Saqqara. Het nieuw ontdekte
graf van Meryneith alias Meryre en zijn plaats in de Amarnaperiode,
in: Phoenix 47 (1/2 2001) p. 68-89
- Maarten J. Raven, René van Walsem, Barbara G. Aston, Eugen
Strouhal: Preliminary Report on the Leiden Excavations at Saqqara,
Season 2002: The tomb of Meryneith, in: JEOL 37, 2002, 91-109
- The Unexpected find of a Royal Tomb, in: Saqqara Newsletter
1, 2003, 8-12 (see: FRIENDS
- Internet Links -
(with reports and photos)
Report - Tomb*
(Both cached here)
- W. Kaiser: Zur Nennung von Sened und
Peribsen in Saqqara B3, in: G.M. 122. 1991, 49-55
- R. Stadelmann: Die Oberbauten der Konigsgraber der 2. Dynastie in
Sakkara, in: BdE 97,2 (Mel. Mokhtar II) 1985, 295-307
- W. Kaiser: Zur Unteririrdischen Anlage der Djoserpyramide und ihrer
entwicklungsgeschichtlichen Einordung, in: Wallert- Helck (eds.) Gegengabe
- Festschrift Emma Brunner Traut' 1992, 167-190
- W. Kaiser: Zu den Konigsgrabern der 2. Dynastie in Sakkara und Abydos,
in: Bryan-Lorton (eds.) Essays in Egyptology in honor of H. Goedicke,
- P. Munro, in: SAK 10, 1983, 277-295; id., in: GM 63, 1983 (Unas);
id., in: DE 26, 1993, 47-58 (Tomb B)
- J. Van Wetering, The Royal Cemetery of the Early Dynastic Period at
Saqqara and the Second Dynasty Royal Tombs, in: 'Proceedings of the
Krakow Conference' in press
R. van Walsem, Une tombe royale de la deuxieme dynastie à Saqqara sous la tombe du nouvel empire de Meryneith, campagne de
fouille 2001-2002, in: Archéo-Nil 13, 2003.